- Worldwide distribution. There are two types, brown and black; but a microscope is needed to tell them apart. The brown citrus aphid occurs on citrus, and perhaps close relatives. The black citrus aphid occurs on over 120 hosts, including citrus, cocoa, coffee, Hibiscus, maize, Vanda orchids and tea. Important pests.
- Important: (i) suck sap damaging shoot tips; (ii) spread Citrus tristeza virus; (iii) produce honeydew, blackening leaves.
- Citrus tristeza virus is spread more efficiently by the black type.
- Most colonies are wingless; winged adults develop when colonies are large. The aphids can fly up to 30 km.
- Natural enemies: predators, and parasitoid wasps.
- Chemical control: white or horticultural oils; PDPs: neem, derris, pyrethrum, or chilli; or synthetic pyrethroids, but likely to kill natural enemies.
Pacific Pests, Pathogens, Weeds & Pesticides
Citrus aphids (249)
Photo 2. Shiny black adult citrus aphids, Toxoptera sp., and reddish-brown nymphs on the back of a citrus leaf. Note the two syrphid larvae, predators of aphids.
Brown and black citrus aphids. There is confusion in these names with brown and black given to both species of Toxoptera by different authors. CABI has the common names as follows: Toxoptera aurantii is the camellia aphid, and Toxoptera citricida as the black citrus aphid. Some accounts give the common name for Toxoptera citricida as the black/brown aphid!
In this fact sheet Toxoptera citricida is the brown citrus aphid, and Toxoptera aurantii, the black citrus aphid.
Toxoptera species. Toxoptera citricida, brown citrus aphid (CABI-black citrus aphid); Toxoptera aurantii, black citrus aphid (CABI-camellia aphid).
AUTHOR Grahame Jackson
Information from CABI (2020) Toxoptera citricida (black citrus aphid). Crop Protection Compendium. (https://www.cabi.org/cpc/datasheet/54271); and Aphids in citrus (2020) Agriculture and Food. Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development. Western Australia. (https://www.agric.wa.gov.au/citrus/aphids-citrus); Martin KW, et al (2012) Citrus Pests Black citrus aphid. USDA, University of Florida. (https://idtools.org/id/citrus/pests/factsheet.php?name=Black%20citrus%20aphid); and from CABI (2020) Toxoptera aurantii (camellia aphid). Crop Protection Compendium. (https://www.cabi.org/cpc/datasheet/54270).
Produced with support from the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research under project PC/2010/090: Strengthening integrated crop management research in the Pacific Islands in support of sustainable intensification of high-value crop production, implemented by the University of Queensland and the Secretariat of the Pacific Community.