- Widespread distribution. Asia, South America, Oceania. Different types feed on eggplant, beans, cucumber, maize, weeds.
- Eggs in groups of 10-20 on underside of leaves. Larvae graze underside of leaves; adults feed on both sides, often making holes. Adults with stiff hairs on upper surface, unlike beneficial ladybird beetles.
- Natural enemies: parasitoid wasps.
- Cultural control: avoid planting near older infected crops; hand pick larvae if number is small; weed; collect and burn trash after harvest.
- Chemical control: use wood ash mixed with lime (50:50); PDPs: chilli, derris, neem, or pyrethrum; or synthetic pyrethroids, but likely to kill natural enemies.
Pacific Pests, Pathogens, Weeds & Pesticides
Eggplant 28-spot ladybird beetle (058)
Photo 2. Larvae of ladybird beetles, possibly, Epilachna signatipennis, stripping the leaf surface of yard long bean.
28-spotted ladybird beetles
Epilachna (Henosepilachna) species. Note, 28-spotted ladybird beetles are a complex of species. Note, too, the number of spots is variable, and cannot be used to identify ladybird beetles. Waterhouse lists five species that are recorded from Oceania: Epilachna vigintioctopunctata pardalis; Epilachna vigintisexpunctata; Epilachna vigintisexpunctata doryca; Epilachna cucurbitae; and Epilachna guttatopustulata.
AUTHORS Helen Tsatsia & Grahame Jackson
Informatiion from Waterhouse DF, Norris KR (1987) Epilachna species Biological Control Pacific Prospects. Inkata Press. Assistance; and Wilco Liebregts, Eco-Consult Pacific, Fiji (pers. comm); and from Epilachna (2007) CSIRO, ABRS. (https://www.ento.csiro.au/biology/ladybirds/lucid/key/lucidKey/Media/Html/epilachna1.htm). Photo 1 Gerald McCormack, Cook Islands Biodiversity & Natural Heritage. (http://cookislands.bishopmuseum.org/). Photos 2&4 Graham Teakle, Canberra.
Produced with support from the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research under project PC/2010/090: Strengthening integrated crop management research in the Pacific Islands in support of sustainable intensification of high-value crop production, implemented by the University of Queensland and the Secretariat of the Pacific Community.