Pacific Pests, Pathogens and Weeds - Online edition

Pacific Pests, Pathogens, Weeds & Pesticides

Khapra beetle (483)

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  • Restricted distribution. NOT in Australia, New Zealand, nor Pacific islands. Expert identification required. Prefers hot, dry climates.
  • World’s worst pest of stored grains, nuts, pulses, processed products, and a health hazard. Spoilage from larvae: (i) feeding directly and (ii) cast skins and hairs contaminating consignments causing health and decontaminating issues.
  • Larvae reddish-brown, hairy, up to 7mm with brush-like hairs at hind end; adults, 2-3.5mm oval, reddish-brown, with fine hairs on the back. Adults suspend activity (diapause) if conditions unsuitable, for up to 9 months.
  • Spread: infested grains, and other food stuff, processed products, and animal feeds, traded domestically and internationally.
  • Biosecurity: see draft National Khapra Beetle Action Plan 2020-2030 (Australia) to manage threat: (
  • Cultural control: hygiene: clean walls (and fill cracks), floors, vents, bins, and use new sacks; clear up spillages; check frequently for infestations and monitor with pheromone traps.
  • Chemical control: fumigation with methyl bromide (check Montreal Protocol), phosphine, and (in Australia) sulfuryl fluoride for grain and seed storage facilities, and baled hay. Heat (60oC for 30 minutes or 42.5oC for 8 days). Malathion currently approved (in Australia) for infestations in structures and surrounding surface areas.
Common Name

Khapra beetle

Scientific Name

Trogoderma granarium; previously known as Trogoderma afrum, and Trogoderma khapra.

AUTHOR Grahame Jackson
Information from CABI (2019) Trogoderma granarium (khapra beetle) Crop Protection Compendium. (; and Andras Szito (2020) Khapra beetle - declared pest. Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development (entomology). Government of Western Australia. (; and from Akol AM, et al. (Undated) Trogoderma granarium Everts, 1899 - Khapra beetle. BioNET-EAFRINET Keys and Fact Sheets.( Photo 1 James D. Young, USDA APHIS PPQ, Photos 2-5 Simon Hinkley & Ken Walker (2005) Khapra beetle (Trogoderma granarium): PaDIL - (

Produced with support from the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research under project HORT/2016/185: Responding to emerging pest and disease threats to horticulture in the Pacific islands, implemented by the University of Queensland and the Secretariat of the Pacific Community.

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