- Worldwide distribution. On maize, banana, pineapple, sorghum, rice (bakanae disease), sugarcane, and many more. An important disease.
- Fungus develops in storage on cobs that have not been dried properly. Grey or pinkish-white growth covers the kernels. The grains become reddish-brown. Serious human and animal toxins develop affecting horses (damage to liver and nervous systems) and humans.
- Spread of the spores is by wind and seed.
- Cultural control: tolerant varieties; adequate nutrition, and if possible irrigate during dry weather; control insect damage; harvest when mature and dry to 15% for cobs, and 13-15% for seed. Hygiene in storage: clean bins, and protect from insects.
- Chemical control: use carboxin and thiram together.