- Widespread. South Asia (India), East Asia (China, Japan), Africa (Madagascar), North and South America, Europe, Oceania, In Australia, Tonga.
- Seriousness and effect on yield unknown. On noni; no other hosts recorded.
- Species unknown. Likely, eggs laid into underside of leaves, larvae make mines beneath leaf surface, narrow at first expanding into a blotch. When mature, larvae brown with black heads, one or two per blotch. Before pupation, larvae cuts oval 6 mm diameter cases from the leaves, dropping on silken threads attaching them to bark or fallen leaves.
- Adults, small day-flying moth, brown wings with incomplete metallic white bands, and fringed hindwings.
- Cultural control: none recommended as insufficient evidence that moth effects yield.
Pacific Pests, Pathogens, Weeds & Pesticides
Noni shield-bearer moth (431)
Photo 2. Close-up of mines on noni containing larvae of Antispila species. Note oval missing areas of leaf cut by larvae before falling out on silken threads to pupate on bark or leaves on soil.
Noni shield-bearer moth. This fact sheet is a draft awaiting identification of the moth. Noni, Morinda citrifolia, is a fruit-bearing tree in the coffee family, Rubicaeae, used as a traditional medicine.
Possibily, Antispila species. A moth in the Heliozelidae.
AUTHOR Grahame Jackson, Mani Mua & Emeline Ahoafi
Information from Charley Eiseman (2019) Leafminer of North America (1st Edition). (http://charleyeiseman.com/leafminers/); and Antispila. Wikipedia. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antispila); and from Miller L, et al. (2018) A preliminary molecular phylogeny of shield-bearer moths (Lepidoptera: Adeloidea: Heliozelidae) highlights rich undescribed diversity. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 120:129-143.