- Widespread. East and Southeast Asia, and introduced in many other regions, including Africa, North America, Australia. In Solomon Islands.
- Not a pest, an edible mushroom. In button stage similar to highly poisonous death cap, Aminata phalloides, which causes liver and kidney failure.
- Found naturally on wood chip piles, garden soil, compost heaps and, in Pacific island countries, on decaying sago palm trunks and empty oil palm fruit bunches. Commonly grown commercially on rice straw beds and picked immature before greyish-brown veil ruptures leaving the torn volva at the base. Sold fresh, canned or dried.
- Cap 5-12 cm diameter, broadly convex or bell-shaped, dark grey in centre, becoming silvery-white or brownish-grey towards margins, radially streaked with soft hairs. Tends to split at edges. Gills free from stem, brownish-pink. Stem 6-12 cm, whitish or brown.
- Differences from death cap: (i) pink spore print – death cap white; (ii) no ring on stem – death cap has white membranous ring; (iii) different distributions - but common hosts for death cap (oak, chestnut and pine) have been moved around the word (with the fungus).
- NOTE, THE TWO FUNGI CANNOT BE DISTINGUISHED IN THE BUTTON STAGE.
Pacific Pests, Pathogens, Weeds & Pesticides
Paddy straw mushroom (433)
Photo 1. Button stage of the paddy straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea, showing many still enclosed in the veil, and others where the veil has broken.
Photo 2. Young paddy straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea, showing the broken veil on top of the cap and at the bottom of the stem. Note the radiating hairs of the cap.
Paddy straw mushroom, straw mushroom, Chinese mushroom.
AUTHOR Grahame Jackson
Information from Pacioni G (1993) The MacDomald Encyclopedia of mushrooms and toadstools. Little, Brown and Company (UK) Limited. London; and Volvariella volvacea. Wikipedia. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volvariella_volvacea); and Amanita phalloides. Wikipedia. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amanita_phalloides); and Kuo M (2018) Volvariella volvacea. Mushroom Expert.Com. (http://www.mushroomexpert.com/volvariella_volvacea.html); and from FAO (2017) Straw mushroom (Volvariella volvacea) cultivation for livelihood diversification in Laos. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (http://www.fao.org/3/ca4450en/ca4450en.pdf). Photo 1 Chong Fat (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:StrawMushroom.jpg). Photo 4 Len Worthington Volvariella volvacea (Bul.) Singer (1951). (https://www.flickr.com/photos/lennyworthington/16265718515/). Photo 5 Archenzo. Amanita phalloides. Piacenza's mountains (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amanita_phalloides).
Produced with support from the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research under project HORT/2016/185: Responding to emerging pest and disease threats to horticulture in the Pacific islands, implemented by the University of Queensland and the Secretariat of the Pacific Community.