Pacific Pests, Pathogens and Weeds - Online edition

Pacific Pests, Pathogens, Weeds & Pesticides

Queensland fruit fly (425)

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  • Restricted. Oceania. In Australia (under eradication except Queensland), French Polynesia, New Caledonia, Pitcairn.
  • A very serious and invasive pest causing rots in  >200 fruits, vegetables and wild species.
  • Eggs laid (100/day) inside hosts just below surface. Maggots up to 7 mm long, curl into U-shape and jump. Fall to ground to pupate. Adults 5-8 mm long, 10-12 mm wingspan, red-brown thorax, two yellow stripes near the sides, black spots below antennae, clear wings.
  • Spread on the wing (strong flier), by people while travelling, and international trade in fruit.
  • Natural enemies: parasitism up to 30% but not effective in supressing populations.
  • Biosecurity: technologies and schemes to facilitate trade including:
    • post-harvest measures: HTFA (high temperature forced air); low temperatures; insecticide dips; irradiation.
    • area freedom: supported by cultural and chemical measures, e.g., pheromone traps on defined grids; frequent monitoring; public awareness.
    • area-wide management: trapping; protein-bait/insecticide sprays; male annihilation (concentrated trapping); cover sprays as a last resort (e.g., dimethoate); community application of cultural controls; public awareness.
  • Cultural control: (i) monitor - trap male flies with pheromone (cure-lure); regularly check ripe fruit; (ii) proteins baits – use yeast autolysate and insecticide spray; (iii) hygiene – bag fruit; harvest early; pick up fallen fruit, and destroy.
  • Eradication: define quarantine area; control fruit movement; remove fruit from trees and collect fallen fruit, protein bait/insecticide sprays; male annihilation; possibly SIT (sterile insect technique)
Common Name

Queensland fruit fly; abbreviation QFF.

Scientific Name

Bactrocera tryoni

AUTHOR Grahame Jackson
Information (and Photos 1&2) Hinkley S, Walker K (2005) Queensland Fruit Fly (Bactrocera tryoni): PaDIL - (; and Ekman J (2016) Fruit fly management for vegetable growers. Applied Horticulture Reseach. Horticulture Innovation Australia. (; and Information for gardeners. Agriculture Victoria. (; and CABI (2018) Bactrocera tryoni (Queensland fruit fly). Crop Protection Compendium. (; and from Waterhouse DF (1993)1 Biological Control Pacific Prospects - Supplement 2. ACIAR Monograph No. 20. Brown Prior Anderson, Burwood, Victoria;

Produced with support from the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research under project HORT/2016/185: Responding to emerging pest and disease threats to horticulture in the Pacific islands, implemented by the University of Queensland and the Secretariat of the Pacific Community.

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