Pacific Pests, Pathogens and Weeds - Online edition

Pacific Pests, Pathogens, Weeds & Pesticides

Samoa fruit flies (169)

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  • Bactrocera kirki  abiu, avocado, guava, mango, noni, Malay apple, and more; and B. xanthodes - abiu, avocado, breadfruit, jackfruit, papaya, soursop, and more. Both, are of economic importance. A third, B. distincta, in a minor pest of star apple.
  • Females need protein before they can lay viable eggs.
  • Cultural control: growing vegetables out of season; bag fruit with paper or leaves; collect fallen fruit and destroy; harvest early (papaya); some non-hosts, e.g., chilli, pineapple.
  • Chemical control: use a commercial protein bait spray, e.g. MPPIL, Royal Tongalure or Bactrogel.
Common Name

There are seven species of fruit flies in Samoa. Two fruit flies are of major economic importance: Bactrocera kirki (no common name) and the Pacific fruit fly (Bactrocera xanthodes), a third, Bactrocera distincta, is a minor pest of star apple (Chrysophyllum cainito). 

Scientific Name

Bactrocera kirki, Bactrocera xanthodes, Bactrocera distincta, Bactrocera obscura, Bactrocera aenigmatica, Bactrocera samoae, and a new species similar to Bactrocera paraxanthodes. Bactrocera xanthodes is closely related to three other species. These are: Bactrocera paraxanthodea in New Caledonia, and Bactrocera neoxanthodes in Vanuatu, and a species not yet described in Samoa.

AUTHOR Grahame Jackson
Information (and photos) Fruit flies in Samoa (2002), SPC Pest Advisory Leaflet 32 (; and from Fruit fly control methods for Pacific island countries and territories (2001), SPC Pest Advisory Leaflet 40. (

Produced with support from the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research under project PC/2010/090: Strengthening integrated crop management research in the Pacific Islands in support of sustainable intensification of high-value crop production, implemented by the University of Queensland and the Secretariat of the Pacific Community.

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