- Narrow distribution. Pacific Islands. There are several viruses - Watermelon mosaic virus (vanilla necrosis strain) and Vanilla mosaic virus.
- WMV-VNV and VaMV cause severe diseases, with WMV-VNV the more important.
- Yellow patches and streaks; later, black scab-like spots with long black streaks on the stems, and rapid dieback and death within 3-12 months.
- Spread by aphids, in cuttings and on pruning tools.
- Cultural control: wash hands often when pruning; remove diseased plants as soon as symptoms are seen; cuttings only from healthy plants; weed; disease-free tissue cultures (SPC CePaCT).
- Chemical control: none recommended.
Pacific Pests, Pathogens, Weeds & Pesticides
Vanilla viruses (159)
Photo 1. Vanilla plant near collapse, and showing leaves with distorted growth, mosaics and some leaves and pods with black, raised, scab-like spots typical of plants with Vanilla necrosis virus.
Vanilla virus diseases
Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV), Odontoglossum ringspot virus (ORSV), Watermelon mosaic virus - Vanilla necrosis virus strain (WMV-VNS), Vanilla mosaic virus (VaMV).
AUTHOR Grahame Jackson
Information from CABI (2013) Vanilla mosaic virus (https://www.cabi.org/cpc/datasheet/56579), Watermelon mosaic virus-II (https://www.cabi.org/cpc/datasheet/56580), Cymbidium mosaic virus (https://www.cabi.org/cpc/datasheet/14368), Odontoglossum ringspot virus (https://www.cabi.org/cpc/datasheet/37054). Crop Protection Compendium; and from Pearson MN, et al. (1993) Vanilla viruses in the South Pacific. Plant Pathology 42(1): 127-131. (DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.1993.tb01479.x) and from Jackson GVH, Pearson MN (1991) Virus diseases of vanilla in Fiji. Suva, Fiji: Fiji Ministry of Primary Industries. Photos 1-3 Mike Pearson, University of Auckland, New Zealand. Photos 3 Bill Zettler, University of Florida, USA.
Produced with support from the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research under project PC/2010/090: Strengthening integrated crop management research in the Pacific Islands in support of sustainable intensification of high-value crop production, implemented by the University of Queensland and the Secretariat of the Pacific Community.