Examples of live specimens of Harmochirus
Illustrators (and ©) R. Whyte (L), J.K.H. Koh
Aspects of the general morphology of Harmochirus
Illustrators (and ©) B.J. Richardson (CSIRO), M. Zabka (diag.) (QMB)
Palp and epigyne morphology of Harmochirus
Illustrator (and ©) B.J. richardson (CSIRO), M. Zabka (diag.) (QMB)
Harmochirus Simon, 1885
Harmochirus is mostly an African and Oriental genus. The range of one species, Harmochirus brachiatus, extends to Australia. The genus is related to Bianor, which also has a range extending to Australia (Maddison 2015). Further information on the genus and described species can be found in Richardson and Żabka (2017)
Harmochirus brachiatus is a small spider, body length less than 3 mm, with a slightly heart-shaped (female) or rounded (male) abdomen. The head, viewed from above, is rectangular with strongly-curved sides, widest at the posterior lateral eyes which protrude beyond the edges of the cephalothorax. The carapace is high, with a flattened upper surface. Chelicerae have a divided (fissident) retromarginal tooth. The first pair of legs is long, much more strongly built than the others and with a long, thick fringe. The other legs are slight and much shorter.
The male’s palpal tibia has a single, medium-sized, pointed retro-lateral tibial apophysis. The tegulum is roundish, without a proximal lobe. The long embolus arises on the proximal edge of the tegulum and follows a clockwise, half-circle curve around the tegulum.
The female has two epigynal atria with sclerotised lateral margins. There is a median pocket posterior to the atria. The broad copulatory openings are on the lateral edges of each atrium. The spermathecae are convoluted, multi-chambered and are located within the margins of the atria.
Harmochirus has been collected in rainforest.
Harmochirus in Australia is known from only few specimens collected in far north Queensland.
Logunov, D.V. 2000. A redefinition of the genera Bianor Peckham & Peckham, 1885 and Harmochirus Simon, 1885, with the establishment of a new genus Sibianor gen. n. (Aranei: Salticidae). Arthropoda Selecta 9, 221-286.
Maddison, W.P. 2015. A phylogenetic classification of jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae). Journal of Arachnology 43, 231-292.
Richardson, B.J. & Żabka, M. 2016. Salticidae. Arachnida: Araneomorphae. Canberra, Australian Faunal Directory. Australian Biological Resources Study, at https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/SALTICIDAE
Whyte, R. & Anderson, G. 2017. A Field Guide to Spiders of Australia. CSIRO Publishing: Clayton.
* The information sheet should be interpreted in the context of the associated diagrams and photographs. Diagrams explaining anatomical terms can be found in the ‘Salticidae’ pictures at the beginning of the list of genera.