Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants - Online edition

Carallia brachiata (Lour.) Merr.

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Flowers. © Barry Jago
Flowers. © CSIRO
Leaves and Flowers. © CSIRO
Leaves and fruits. © CSIRO
Scale bar 10mm. © CSIRO
10th leaf stage. © CSIRO
Cotyledon stage, epigeal germination. © CSIRO

Merrill, E.D. (1920) The Philippine Journal of Science 15 : 249.

Common name

Freshwater Mangrove; Palamkat; Shengali; Karalli; Caralla Wood; Carallia; Billabong Tree; Andi; Maniawiga; Corky Bark


Oak grain in the wood and a corresponding pattern in the inner blaze. Bark pale and corky, particularly at the base of the stem.


Stipules sheathing the terminal bud, each stipule 10-15 mm long, gradually tapering to a point. Oak grain in the twigs. Leaf blades about 6-12 x 3.5-7 cm. Scattered dark glands visible with a lens on the underside of the leaf blade if not visible to the naked eye. Lateral veins forming loops (often a double series of loops) inside the blade margin.


Flowers about 3-4 mm long, sessile or very shortly stalked, each flower subtended by two bracteoles. Usually seven calyx lobes and seven petals about 1.5-2 mm long. Stamens usually 14.


Fruits globular or depressed globular, about 8-9 mm diam. Calyx lobes persistent at the apex. Seed and embryo +/- horseshoe-shaped in longitudinal section.


Cotyledons longer than wide, about 15-20 x 10-13 mm, margins inconspicuously toothed, lateral veins forming a double series of loops inside the margin. Stipules small and inconspicuous, less than 1 mm long. Hypocotyl slightly winged just below the cotyledons. First pair of leaves with regularly toothed margins. At the tenth leaf stage: midrib raised on the upper surface of the leaf blades and lateral veins forming loops inside the blade margin. Stipules interpetiolar, triangular, about 5-7 mm long. Seed germination time 37 to 54 days.

Distribution and Ecology

Occurs in WA, NT, CYP, NEQ and CEQ. Altitudinal range from sea level to 500 m. Grows in well developed rain forest, dry rain forest, gallery forest and rain forest around swamps. Also occurs in Asia, Malesia and the Solomon Islands.

Natural History & Notes

Leaf material of this species was active against some tumors. Collins et al. (1990).

Diatoma brachiata Lour., Flora Cochinch. : 296(1790), Type: from Cochinchina (S Vietnam). Carallia integerrima DC., Prodromus 3: 33(1828), Type: in Indie orient. An forte C. lucidae var? (v.s. comm. a cl. Lambert.). Carallia octopetala Benth., Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society, Botany 3: 74(1859).
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