Slender or needle-shaped.
Refers to flowers with a regular pattern. Flowers which can be bisected by two or more vertical planes to produce similar halves. cf. Zygomorphic
An angle less than 90 degrees. Usually refers to the extremity of an organ.
Usually used to describe roots or leafy shoots which arise other than in the normal position; e.g. roots which arise from the stem or branches rather than the roots or the radicle, or shoots which arise from the stem instead of the axils of leaves.
The mode of attachment or production of organs on an axis, e.g. leaves on a twig, petals on a flower or floral axis.
Shapeless, without any definite structure.
Clasping the stem. Used to describe leaf bases or stipules which are enlarged at the base and enclose or surround the stem or twig.
The column on which stamens and carpels are borne.
In a ring or arranged in a circle.
The portion of the stamen containing the pollen. Anthers are usually (but not always) bilocular.
The stage in the development of a flower when fertilization occurs, i.e. when the pollen is released and the ovary is receptive.
The tip of an organ.
With separate and distinct carpels in the flower.
With numerous areoles, i.e pockets or small interstices usually between the fibres or veinlets in a leaf blade.
An Aril is difficult to define but the term is generally restricted to fleshy growths from the funicle or from the hilum, i.e. from the base of the seed or its point of attachment. To be classed as an aril it must enclose at least part of the seed. An aril often resembles an egg cup around the base of the egg. No distinction is made in this key between arils, arillodes and sarcotestas and all are included in the generic term aril. Arils are usually found on seeds in dehiscent or tardily dehiscent fruits but there are exceptions to this generalisation. The edible part of a litchi, Litchi chinensis, is an aril.
Refers to organs which cannot be divided into halves which are mirror images of one another.
A small lobe or ear-shaped appendage.
An ear-shaped appendage or lobe.
A term used to describe fig trees (Ficus spp.) which drop aerial roots from their branches down to the ground. The aerial roots grow in size to become pillar-like and the branch continues to grow horizontally and repeat the process so that over a period of time one tree can cover a wide area.
Attached by the base, often used to describe anthers which are attached to the filament in such a fashion.
A predominantly Queensland term used to describe rain forest with emergent eucalypts above the rain forest canopy.
With two leaves.
Producing both stamens and pistils, i.e. hermaphrodite.
The expanded portion of a leaf.
Blaze is a term used to describe the longitudinal section of the bark of a tree which is revealed by making a + vertical,tangential cut, traditionally made with an axe or brushhook but a pocket knife is recommended in this Key.
The stem of a tree.
Much modified and much reduced leaves usually found in inflorescences, variously dispersed, but frequently at the base of flowers or flower stalks.
A small branch.
A very useful implement resembling a heavy grade reaping hook but mounted on a long straight handle. The handle is held in both hands and the implement us used by swinging it in a similar manner to an axe.
Small bulbs; usually used to describe structures produced on above-ground parts of a plant.
Surface marked by bubble-like structures.
The lower part of the trunk of a tree close to ground level.
Falling or being shed early in the developmental stage of an organ or structure.
In this key this refers to the cap-like structure covering the stamens etc. in the flower bud. It is formed by the fusion of sepals and/or petals. The calyptra (or operculum) is usually shed as a complete unit as the flower matures. This may happen just prior to anthesis or it can occur quite early in the development of the flower.
Shaped like a church bell.
Channelled, with a longitudinal groove.
Hoary or becoming grey or hoary.
In this key the term cataphyll is only used in connection with seedlings. Cataphylls are small scale leaves or leaf-like structures which do not develop into true leaves. They usually appear between the cotyledons and the first true leaves but they can also appear at other positions on the seedling.
With a tail-like appendage.
Bearing flowers on the stem.
Pertaining to the stem.
Central East Queensland. The area south of Townsville and north of Rockhampton.
With an irregular brain-like appearance.
With hairs along the margin.
With small hairs along the margin.
Dehiscing, breaking or parting along a transverse line around the circumference.
Vegetation dominated by trees whose crowns touch or overlap giving a complete coverage of the ground.
A spiral shape resembling that of a snail.
Attached or sticking together.
Hairs or finger-shaped glands produced on leaves or twigs. These structures may produce mucilage and are commonly found in Asclepiadaceae.
Clothed in numerous structures resembling hills in shape.
Shell-shaped, i.e. one half of a bivalve shell (not an artillery shell).
Running together, joined to form one structure, gradually fused.
A three dimensional shape, which is triangular in median longitudinal section and circular in any transverse section. Like an inverted carrot.
Joined together, united.
Belonging to the same species.
Twisted or bent.
Twisted and plaited or folded or twisted back on itself.
Vegetative shoots at the base of the stem. The term is usually associated with vegetative shoots from tree stumps following logging but the term is not used in this restricted sense in the Key.
A small boat about as long as wide made like a basket and covered with hides, skins or similar material.
Heart-shaped referring either to the overall shape of the leaf or to the base of a leaf.
Like a bullock's horn.
Found in all parts of the world.
With small rounded teeth.
With small teeth along the margin.
A sharp rigid point.
Shaped like a drinking cup.
Elongated, circular in cross section.
Cape York Peninsula. The northern part of Cape York Peninsula, north of Princess Charlotte Bay.
An abbreviation for diameter breast high, i.e. diameter 1.3 m above ground level.
Running down. Often used to describe the prolongation of the leaf tissue beyond the point of insertion of the leaf on the twig.
In pairs, with successive pairs at right angles to one another, usually used to describe leaf arrangement.
Splitting to release contents. Usually applied to fruits or anthers.
Shaped like an equilateral triangle.
With a branched tree-like appearance.
Sunk down, flattened from above.
Ovules and viable pollen grains produced on different plants.
Arranged in two rows.
Spread apart, widely divergent.
Structures in the forks of the midrib and the main lateral veins. They take two main forms, either conspicuous little tufts of hairs or little hooded enclosures (foveoles, i.e. small pits). Domatia may also occur in the forks formed by the branching of the main lateral veins but this is not a frequent occurrence.
Attached by the back, often use to describe anthers which are attached to the filament in such a fashion.
Bearing stiff prickles or stout blunt prickles.
A solid figure, elliptical in longitudinal section but circular in transverse section. A rugby union football is a good example of an ellipsoid object.
Oval in outline, widest at the middle.
Much longer than wide.
Confined to a particular region (prior to the arrival of modern man).
Refers to the buds or shoots which develop on the trunks of trees.
The outermost layer of an organ, usually only one cell thick.
A plant which is not a parasite, but grows upon another plant.
When an organ is the same length when measured in different planes.
Turned inside out.
A wart-like or other outgrowth on the body of a plant.
A cluster or bundle of flowers, leaves, stamens, etc. A particular type of inflorescence with flowers arising from one point on a twig or branch, each flower with or without a stalk.
Covered with matted hairs so as to impart a felt-like appearance.
The margin of an organ which is bordered with long slender processes (particularly hairs).
When the surface is marked by longitudinal depressions. See B2 in Tree Bark Features definitions.
Bent from side to side in a zig-zag form.
With one edge attached while the other edge is free and formed into a ruffle.
Prop-like struts which emerge from the lower stem and extend into the ground and function as roots. So named because of their resemblance to flying buttresses on Gothic cathedrals.
Like a leaf.
The fertilized or developed ovary containing the seeds. Fruits may be dry or succulent and are produced in a wide variety of forms and sizes.
Spindle-shaped, thick but tapering towards each end.
Closed forest along creeks and rivers which flow through areas which are otherwise dominated by a different vegetation type or less well developed forest.
Bent like a knee.
Covered with a waxy bloom or whitish or greyish substance which can be rubbed off.
The female part of the flower.
An elongated stalk which raises the ovary above the level at which other floral parts are attached.
Usually used to describe a leaf base which has two lobes each + at right angles to the midrib.
The organ by which a parasite absorbs nutrients from the host plant. In longitudinal section it resembles a root ball in structure.
Usually used to describe inflorescences when the flowers are produced in a definite structure where the flowers (often without stalks) are densely packed in various ways without any obvious branching pattern.
Shaped like half a sphere.
A parasitic plant that is also photosynthetic to some degree. Hemiparasites may just obtain water and mineral nutrients from the host plant, or may also obtain at least part of their organic nutrients from the host as well.
Clothed in coarse, long hairs.
A small hill or knoll.
Colourless or translucent.
A compound incorporating or derived from hydrogen cyanide.
Not protruding beyond the surrounding organ.
Bent inwards, curved inwards or upwards.
Usually applied to fruits which do not split open to release seeds while the fruits are still attached to the tree.
Indefinite, not completely determined.
Folded inwards so that the outer surfaces of the organ are in contact, often used to describe the folding in a corolla.
Swollen, bladder-like, puffed up.
Bent inwards, applied to a number of different organs.
The arrangement in which flowers are borne on a plant.
The arrangement in which fruits are borne on a plant.
Between the petioles.
A vein of constant thickness (much thinner than the midrib) just inside the margin from the base to the apex. Lateral veins run from the midrib to the intramarginal vein. (To be classified as an intramarginal vein, rather than looping lateral veins, there should not be any major bends, although slight indentations may occur at the junction with the main lateral veins.)
Opening inwards, usually used to describe anthers.
Shaped like a tear drop.
Applied to margins which are divided into numerous pointed lobes, e.g. leaves, seeds, stigmas, tepals, arils, etc.
Shaped like a Florence Flask or gourd, i.e. globular at the base but with a long narrow neck.
Rope consisting of 3-7 or more twisted strands which are then twisted in the opposite direction to form the final product. Not braided or plaited.
The leaf-like subdivision of a compound leaf.
Small pustules on the stems of many rain forest trees composed of material which when rubbed between the fingers has the consistency of borer dust. To see the true colour of lenticels it may be necessary to rub the weathered material off the top of each lenticel to expose the fresher material beneath. Lenticels may also be found on twigs and fruits. Lenticels facilitate gaseous exchange between plant tissue and the atmosphere.
Beset with lenticels.
A tongue-shaped lobe found at the base of leaf blades of grasses and gingers.
Long and narrow with parallel sides.
A plant growing on rocks and with a growth habit resembling that of epiphytes. Many epiphytes also grow as lithophytes and vice-versa, e.g. Ficus spp.
Margins with large projections or indentations.
Divided into little cells or compartments. Usually used to describe anthers.
Shaped like a half moon.
The area covered by Flora Malesiana, i.e. the area bounded by Peninsular Malaysia to the west, the Philippines to the north and New Britain and New Ireland to the east. The southern boundary takes in New Guinea and all the Indonesian islands but does not include Australia.
Having the appearance of meal (ground grain) or dust.
Attached by the middle. Usually used to describe two-armed hairs attached by the middle.
A parchment-like texture.
A portion of a fruit which splits away as a separate entity capable of perpetuating the species.
Used as a suffix to denote numbers of parts in a flower.
Usually used to describe rocks which have been subject to various stresses and strains (particularly heat and pressure) so that the original structure is changed and components recrystallized and the overall appearance is radically changed.
A bishop's tall cap.
Shaped like a bishops ceremonial headdress.
Plants whose seedlings possess one cotyledon. Often with a combination of the following features: herbs or grasslike, with parallel leaf venation and flower parts usually in multiples of 3.
A family consisting of one genus only.
A genus consisting of one species only.
A short sharp tip on an organ.
With many lobes.
Trees (or other plants) with a number of + vertical stems of + equal size.
Used to describe a species which has been introduced to an area and is now growing and regenerating in the area without any assistance from man.
Producing nectar. Usually referring to glands which produce nectar in the flowers or on leaves, twigs or parts of the inflorescence.
North East Queensland. The area north of Townsville and south of Princess Charlotte Bay.
New South Wales.
Northern Territory. The "Top End" of the Northern Territory, north of 19° S, extending from the border with Western Australia to the Queensland border.
Used to describe the macroscopic appearance of the wood of stems, branches and twigs where the vascular rays are large and obvious. The Queensland Nut tree (Macadamia spp.) has oak grain in the stem and twigs. To observe oak grain in the twigs (which appears rather like spokes in an old cart wheel) cut through a leafy twig at a shallow angle with a pocket knife.
Longer than wide but with parallel sides.
A solid pear-shaped object with the point of attachment at the broader end. cf. Pyriform
Triangular and attached at the narrow end. cf. Triangular
Blunt or rounded at the end.
A variation of the more general term convolute. When the margins of one organ alternately overlap those of another organ.
Small translucent dots or cigar-shaped structures which are visible when the leaf is held up to the light. Oil dots are readily seen in leaves from citrus trees.
Vegetation dominated by trees where the canopy is not continuous and sufficient light reaches the ground to support vigorous grass growth at least during the wet season. cf. Closed Forest
Flat and circular.
Vegetative shoots which grow vertically and not horizontally, e.g. the apex of the Hoop Pine tree.
Egg-shaped in outline and attached by the broader end.
A solid egg-shaped object with the point of attachment at the broader end.
A sterile ovule. Ovulodes can be found in female and hermaphrodite flowers but they are easier to observe and much more numerous in male flowers.
A leaf blade which is deeply divided towards a central point somewhat resembling the fingers on a hand.
In all tropical regions of the world.
Like a butterfly or with a pea-like flower.
Small, elongated protruberances on the surface of an organ.
Covered with superficial protuberances.
Covered with short pimple-like or nipple-like protuberances on the surface.
Solid object some of whose plane sections are parabolas.
Shaped like a circular dish, like the bone in the knee cap.
A palmately compound leaf in which the basal pair of leaflets are each divided in two or are two-lobed.
The stalk of an individual flower usually restricted to the stalk beyond the last pair of bracts.
Describes organs attached by the middle, e.g. like the handle of an umbrella. Usually used to describe leaves but can be used for other organs.
With a conspicuous midrib and a number of lateral veins diverging from it and running + parallel to one another, i.e. pinnately veined.
A term used to describe the bud on perennial plants particularly those which produce leaves each year above the ground but which then die back in the dry season so that the only part of the plant which persists from one year to the next is an underground tuber.
When the twig apparently passes through a leaf.
The outermost edge of any organ.
Like a petal.
The leaf stalk.
The stalk of a leaflet of a compound leaf.
A bundle of stamens united by their filaments.
Produced by photosynthesis, the process whereby green plants use sunlight to convert carbon dioxide (taken from the air) and water into complex substances. Such activity is usually indicated by the tissue being green in colour.
Usually used to describe the "leaves" of the commonly encountered Australian acacias. These "leaves" are actually modified petioles, i.e. leaf stalks, and in botanical literature are called phyllodes.
Hairy, the hairs rather long and spaced.
Divided into pinnae, once compound.
The spongy centre of a twig or stem.
Vegetative shoots which persist in growing horizontally even when given the opportunity to grow vertically, e.g. the lateral branches of the Hoop Pine tree.
An area enclosed by a thin line on each lateral surface of the seed. This feature is not common but is found in legumes and some other families.
Folded or pleated like a fan.
Aggregated waxy masses of pollen grains (the individual pollen grains often not discernible) transferred as a unit of pollination.
A + circular opening through which the pollen is shed.
As though bitten off.
Roots growing down to the soil from the lower stem or branches.
Slightly covered with minute soft and erect hairs.
Covered with short, soft and erect hairs.
A fleshy swelling on the petiole at its junction with the leaf blade. Often associated with an angle or change in direction of the petiole. Swellings at the junction of the petiole and the twig are not regarded as pulvini. In the case of compound leaves, a swelling at the junction of the leaflet stalk and leaflet blade is regarded as a pulvinus.
Marked with dots, spots, pits or glands.
Ending in a sharp and rigid point.
Covered by small blister-like pimples or bubbles.
Spreading from or arranged round a common centre.
Radiating lines of grooves or ridges.
Flowers borne on the branches in the crown of a tree.
Small needle-shaped crystals in or amongst the cells of plants. Commonly found in Araceae.
Curved backwards or downwards. Often used to describe a leaf margin which is bent downwards.
Kidney-shaped, e.g. sheep kidney.
With an appearance like that of a fish net.
Directed backwards or downwards.
Vegetative shoots on the stem and branches which have many of the characteristics of the shoots and leaves on seedlings rather than those on adult shoots.
A plant which grows on creek and river banks and which has adaptations which allow it to survive floods and strong currents.
Narrowed into a slender tip or point.
Bag-shaped or pouched.
With a texture of sandpaper.
Leaf-like structures which do not develop fully into true leaves.
Climbing by any means.
Marked by shallow depressions or pits.
A predominantly Queensland term for rain forest.
Scaly, covered with small flakes.
A flat but slightly dished oval object.
Parts or organs arising from or directed to one side only.
The young plant shortly after germination.
Divided internally by partitions.
Toothed, the teeth asymmetrical and pointing forward like the teeth on a large circular saw.
Without a stalk.
A bristle or bristle-shaped structure.
Beset with bristles.
Covered with bristles.
Tubular in structure and enclosing another structure, e.g. the stipules on many figs (Ficus spp.).
With a short stem.
Curved twice in opposite directions.
Usually used to describe structures such as leaf margins with a number of regular curved indentations or small lobes. Not to be confused with undulate.
With many curves, snake-like.
A curve or bend.
To drag a log out of the forest usually by means of a crawler tractor or similar mechanical device.
A narrow track through the forest along which a log or number of logs have been removed.
A large bract enclosing a flower cluster.
Often used to describe leaves and other organs which are broad and rounded at the apex and narrowed towards the base.
An inflorescence where the flowers are arranged on a single axis and the individual flowers lack stalks.
Spiny, having spines.
Covered or beset with small spines.
One of the male organs of the flower consisting of a pollen bearing anther and a filament (stalk).
A structure resembling stamens to some degree but not producing pollen grains. Often found in female flowers.
The broad, upper, + erect petal of a papilionaceous (fabaceous) flower.
Small growths on the twig, generally found in pairs, one on each side of the twig at the junction of the petiole and the twig. Stipules frequently fall off early in life and the only indication of stipules is the presence of scars on the twig. Stipules are best seen on fresh succulent shoots. Figs (Ficus spp.) and some other trees have sheathing stipules, i.e. stipules which enclose the apical bud on each twig. Stipules are readily seen on the commonly cultivated hibiscus.
A slender branch or shoot which takes root and eventually develops into a new plant.
Arranged one above the other, i.e. in layers.
Marked by parallel lines either grooves or ridges.
Marked by minute lines.
Awl-shaped, narrow and tapering to a point but thick enough in cross section to make it stiff and hard.
Placed vertically above.
Composed of two or more united carpels.
Containing tannin (dark astringent component of the bark of many species especially Acacia and Eucalyptus but also found in other organs).
Any recognizable taxonomic unit or entity, e.g. a species, genus, family, etc.
One of the climatic regions of the world. In the Southern Hemisphere the area between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle.
Broken up into flakes which are nearly square or rectangular in outline forming a regular pattern. This is an uncommon bark-type in rain forest.
Clothed in dense, matted, woolly hairs.
Twisted and bent in different directions.
The elastic structure holding the pollen masses.
Across, crossways as in left to right.
A group of three.
A collective term to describe any unbranched epidermal outgrowth, e.g. hair, bristle, prickle, etc.
With three leaves.
With three lobes.
Three-veined. The leaf has a midrib or main central longitudinal vein and two main veins (of similar thickness) running more or less parallel to the margin of the leaf blade but some distance from it. The two main lateral veins may approximate the midrib in thickness and extend halfway up the leaf blade or approach the apex.
Three-angled in cross section.
A term used to describe an orifice opening along three radial lines.
Ending abruptly as though cut off.
Clothed in knobbly or wart-like projections.
Small wart-like outgrowths.
Hollow and dilated at one end like a trumpet.
A cell or growth intruding into a duct or vessel. A characteristic of the vessels in the heartwood of trees.
Equipped with a knob or projection near the centre of the organ.
The lower level of vegetation in a forest.
A term used to describe the margins of leaves which are wavy (not flat) but not indented as in sinuate margins.
A compound leaf which has been reduced in the evolutionary process to one leaflet. Easily mistaken for a simple leaf and therefore coded as Simple (L3) and Compund (L4) in this key.
With one main nerve or vein.
Possessing only one type of sexual organ, either pistils or stamens but not both.
The partially detached flap on an anther where movement permits or prevents the release of pollen.
Velvety, clothed in fine soft hairs.
The arrangement of veins in a leaf or other organ.
Covered with numerous small bumps or wart-like processes.
Swinging freely about the point of attachment.
A small bladder or cavity.
Composed of vessels or bladders.
The remains or trace of an organ which has largely disappeared during evolutionary processes.
Clothed in long, weak hairs.
Western Australia. The Kimberley Region, being Western Australia north of 19° S, extending from Broome in the west to the Northern Territory border.
Covered in warts.
The arrangement of organs in a circle around a central axis, e.g. the branches on the stem of a Hoop Pine (Araucaria cunninghamii).
Any membranous expansion attached to an organ; the lateral petal of a papilionaceous (fabaceous) flower.
The woody part of a plant, e.g. the stem of a tree.
Usually refers to flowers that can only be bisected by one vertical plane to produce similar halves. cf. Actinomorphic