Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants - Online edition

Claoxylon hillii Benth.

Shrub (woody or herbaceous, 1-6 m tall)
Click/tap on images to enlarge
Female flower. © Australian Tropical Herbarium
Female inflorescence. © Australian Tropical Herbarium
Male flower. © Australian Tropical Herbarium
Male inflorescence. © Australian Tropical Herbarium
Fruit. © R.L. Barrett
Dehiscing fruit. © R.L. Barrett
Dehiscing fruit. © ATH
Leaves and dehiscing fruit. © R.L. Barrett
Leaves and fruit. © ATH
Leaves and fruit. © ATH
10th leaf stage. © CSIRO
Cotyledon stage, Epigeal germination. © CSIRO
Scale bar 10mm. © CSIRO

Bentham, G. (1873) Flora Australiensis 6: 131. Type: Queensland. Cape York, MGilivray, Daemel; Albany island, W. Hill. (all males); Rockingham Bay, Dallachy (females).


Small evergreen tree to 15 m tall. Hard yellowish or orange layers often present in the blaze. Blaze odour apparent, difficult to describe but usually unpleasant. Cambial layer may turn purplish on exposure.


Oil dots visible with a lens. About 1-2 small raised glands usually present on the upper side of the petiole at its junction with the leaf blade. Leaf blades about 9-30 x 4-15 cm. Petiole narrowly grooved on the upper surface, 30-125 mm x 1.5 x 2 mm, glabrous. Pocket domatia usually present particularly towards the leaf base. Pale circular or slightly elongated lenticels normally visible on the twigs. Stipules very small.


Inflorescences axillary up to 180 mm long, usually unisexual. Male and female flowers about 2 mm diam. Anthers shaped like a cloven hoof with the two anther sacs joined only towards the base; bases of the staminal filaments surrounded by numerous hairy 'glands'. Ovary pubescent.


Fruit about 6-8 mm x 3.4-4 mm. Aril orange-red, completely enclosing the seed.


Cotyledons broadly elliptic to orbicular, about 10-15 x 10-17 mm. First pair of leaves narrowly ovate or lanceolate, margins toothed. Midrib raised on the upper surface. At the tenth leaf stage: oil dots very small, just visible with a lens; two small raised glands on the upper surface of the petiole near its junction with the leaf blade; stipules very small. Seed germination time 23 to 325 days.

Distribution and Ecology

Occurs in WA, NT, CYP and NEQ. Altitudinal range from near sea level to 300 m. Favoured by disturbance, grows in well developed rain forest on a variety of sites. Also occurs in New Guinea.

Natural History & Notes

Not all specimens have domatia on the leaves, especially in Torres Strait.

RFK Code
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