Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants - Online edition

Olea paniculata R.Br.

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Flowers. © T. Hawkes
Flowers. © T. Hawkes
Flowers. © Barry Jago
Leaves and fruits. © CSIRO
Fruit, side views, transverse section and seed. © W. T. Cooper
Scale bar 10mm. © CSIRO
10th leaf stage. © CSIRO
Cotyledon stage, epigeal germination. © CSIRO

Brown, R. (1810) Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae : 523. Type: (J. T.) v.v., Port Jackson(?).

Common name

Marblewood; Olive, Australian; Olive, Native; Native Olive; Marble-wood; Ironwood; Clove Berry; Australian Olive; Pigeonberry Ash; Marvey; Maulwood; Ash, Pigeonberry


Blaze darkening on exposure. Blaze odour may resemble that of cucumber (Cucumis sativus).


Leaf blades about 5-10 x 2-4.5 cm. Lateral veins forming loops inside the blade margin. Domatia are small foveoles often with hairs around the orifice. Pale coloured lenticels usually obvious on the twigs.


Calyx tube + lobes about 1-1.5 mm long, lobes about 0.2-0.4 mm long. Corolla lobes about 2-3 x 1.7 mm. Pollen yellow. Ovary about 1 mm long. Stigma pale green, globular. Ovules 2 per locule, pendulous from the apex of the ovary.


Fruits ovoid, about 10-16 x 8-12 mm. Endocarp hard, ovoid, about 10-14 x 6-8 mm and about 0.6-1.7 mm thick.


Cotyledons elliptic, about 16-29 x 15-18 mm. At the tenth leaf stage: leaf blade elliptic to obovate, apex acuminate, base cuneate, glabrous on the upper surface, domatia are small crater-like foveoles usually hairy inside; petiole and stem clothed in pale, flat scales often extending along the midrib on the undersurface of the leaf blade. Seed germination time 37 to 72 days.

Distribution and Ecology

Occurs in CYP, NEQ, CEQ and southwards to coastal central New South Wales. Altitudinal range from near sea level to 900 m. Grows in well developed rain forest but tends to be more common in drier, more seasonal rain forest. Also occurs in Malesia and the Pacific islands.

Natural History & Notes

Fruit eaten by several species of birds. Cooper & Cooper (1994).

Olea thozettii Pancher & Sebert, Notice sur les Bois de la Nouvelle Caledonie : 183(1874), Type: Rockhampton (province de Queensland, Australie), par M. Thozet.
RFK Code
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