Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants - Online edition

Family Profile
Family Description

A family of about 620-790 genera and 9000-10000 species, cosmopolitan, about 150 genera occur naturally in Australia.


Ancistrachne - A genus of three species in Australia and the Philippines; two species occur naturally in Australia. Simon (1993).

Aristida - A genus of about 300 species from Europa, North America, Asia, Australia and the Pacific.

Arthragrostis - A monotypic genus endemic to Australia. Lazarides (1984).

Arundinella - A genus of about 50 species, of the tropics and subtropics, mainly in Asia. One species occurs in Australia.

Axonopus - A genus of 87 species from Africa, Temperate Asia, Tropical Asia, Australasia, Pacific Islands, North America, and South America; 3 species occur naturally in Australia.

Bothriochloa - A pantropical genus of about 35 species; 3 species occur in Australia, 1 naturalised.

Cenchrus - A genus of ca. 30 species; ca. 10 native species in Australia.

Centotheca - A genus of about 4 species.

Cymbopogon - A genus of 70 species from Asia to Australia.

Cynodon - A genus of 10 species in the world tropics.

Cyrtococcum - A genus of 11 species from Africa, Temperate Asia, Tropical Asia, Pacific Islands, North America and South America; 2 species native to Australia.

Dactyloctenium - A genus of 14 soecues, in warm regions; five species in Australia, two native and three introduced.

Eragrostis - A cosmopolitan genus of about 350 species, mostly subtropical; 73 species in Australia, 58 native and 15 introduced.

Eriachne - A genus of 48 species extending from Australia to SE Asia and India. All species native to Australia, 42 are endemic. Found predominantly in monsoonal and tropical to semi-arid areas.

Garnotia - A genus of about 29 species from Asia to the Pacific and Australia. One species in Australia.

Heteropogon - A genus of about 8 species from the tropical and subtropical parts of the world.

Isachne - A genus of about 90 species from Asia to New Guinea and Australia. Webster (1987).

Leptaspis - A genus of five species in Africa, Asia, Malesia, Australia and Fiji; one species occurs naturally in Australia. Simon (1993).

Lophatherum - A genus of two species from eastern Asia to tropical Australia and the Pacific.

Mullerochloa - A monotypic genus endemic to North East Queensland. Wong (2005), Franklin (2008).

Neololeba - A monotypic genus occuring from the Philippines and eastern Indonesia to New Guinea and tropical Australia. Franklin (2008).

Oplismenus - A genus of ca. 9 species that occur in Europe, Africa,Temperate Asia, Tropical Asia, Pacific Islands, North America and South America; 5 species in Australia.

Ottochloa - A genus of three species frorm China to Australia. Two species in Australia.

Panicum - A genus of over 300 species in tropical and subtropical regions of the world; about 30 species occur naturally in Australia and nine species have become naturalised. Stanley & Ross (1989).

Paspalum - A genus of about 200 species mainly in tropical and subtropical America; about three species occur naturally in Australia and about 12 species have become naturalised. Stanley & Ross (1989).

Perotis - A genus of 10 species from Africa, India to Australia. Three species in Australia, one introduced and two native.

Phragmites - A cosmopolitan genus of three species, with two species native to Australia.

Pogonatherum - A genus of fours species from Asia to Australia; two species in Australia.

Scrotochloa - A genus of two species in Asia, Malesia and Australia; both species occur naturally in Australia.

Setaria - A genus of about 100 species in tropical and temperate regions; seven species occur naturally in Australia and nine species have become naturalised. Jacobs & Hastings (1993).

Triodia - A genus of 65 species endemic to Australia, present in the N.T. and all states except Tasmania. Lazarides et al (2005).

Urochloa - A pantropical genus of about 120 species. Veldkamp (1996)


Bor, N.L. (1955). Notes on Asiatic grasses: XXIV. The genus Arundinella Raddi in India, Burma and Ceylon. Kew Bulletin 10(3): 404-406.

Chen, S. (2006). Flora of China. 22: 445.

Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T.& Williamson, H. (2006 onwards).

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora.

Du Puy, D.J., Telford, I.R.H. & Edgar, E. (1993). Flora of Australia 50

Franklin, Donald C. (2008). Taxonomic interpretations of Australia native bamboos (Poaceae: Bambuseae) and their biogeographic implications. Telopea 12(2): 179-191.

Holttum, R.E. (1967). The bamboos of New Guinea. Kew Bulletin 21:263-292.

Jacobs, S.W.L. & Hastings, S.M. (1993). Setaria. Flora of New South Wales. 4: 494-497.

Judziewicz, E.J. (1984). Phytologia 56(4): 299.

Lazarides, M. (1961). The genus Ottochloa Dandy (Gramineae) in Australia and its relationship to Ichnanthus oblongatus Hughes. Australian Journal of Botany 9(2): 210-213.

Lazarides, M. 1980. The tropical grasses of Southeast Asia.

Lazarides, M. (1985). New taxa of tropical Australian grasses (Poaceae). Nuytsia 5(2): 286.

Monod de Froideville, C. (1971) Notes on Malesian grasses. IV. A synopsis of Centotheca and reduction of Ramosia. Blumea 19(1): 58.

Parham, J.W. (1979). Flora Vitiensis Nova 1: 297-298.

Scholz, U. (1981). Monograph of the Genus Oplismenus (Gramineae): 1-213.

Simon, B.K. (1978). Technical Bulletin, Botany Branch, Queensland Department of Primary Industries 3: 31.

Simon, B.K. (1983). Poaceae. Flowering Plants in Australia. : 376-391.

Simon, B.K. (1993). A Key to Australian Grasses. : 1-206.

Stanley, T.D. & Ross, E.M. (1989). Poaceae. Flora of south-eastern Queensland. 3: 91-268.

Simon, B.K. (1992). Studies in Australian Grasses 5*. New species of and new combinations for Queensland Panicoid grasses. Austrobaileya 3(4): 592-594.

Veldkamp, J.F. (1996) Brachiaria, Urochloa (Gramineae - Paniceae) in Malesia. Blumea 41(2).

Webster, R.D. (1987). The Australian Paniceae (Poaceae): 102-103.

Weston, A.S. (1974). The genus Cenchrus (Poaceae) in Australia. Nuytsia 1(4): 378.

Wong, K.M. (2005). Mullerochloa, a new genus of bamboo (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) from North-East Australia and notes on the circumscription of Bambusa. Blumea 50(3): 425-441.

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