Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants - Online edition

Prumnopitys amara (Blume) de Laub.

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Leaves and male cones. © CSIRO
Fruit, side views and seed. © W. T. Cooper
Scale bar 10mm. © CSIRO
10th leaf stage. © CSIRO
Cotyledon stage, epigeal germination. © CSIRO

 Laubenfels, D.J. de (1978) Blumea 24(1): 190.

Common name

Black Pine; Pine, Black


Bark of large trees almost black. Pale snake-like stripes may occur in the blaze, when cut, the stripes exude a clear resin.


Leaf blades about 6-17 x 0.7-1.5 cm. When lightly chewed the leaves have a sugary taste but with further chewing the taste becomes bitter. No lateral veins visible on either side of the midrib.


Male cones about 25-40 x 5 mm, peduncle very short or nil.


Receptacle small and inconspicuous. Fruits globular, about 25-35 x 25-30 mm. Seeds globular, about 20-25 x 20-25 mm, endocarp about 1.5 mm thick. Embryo small, resembling a twisted piece of cotton.


Cotyledons three, linear, about 20-25 mm long. At the tenth leaf stage: leaf blade oblong, about 5-7 cm long, apex long-acuminate, base cuneate, glabrous, no lateral veins present; petiole, stem and terminal bud glabrous. Seed germination time 480 to 583 days.

Distribution and Ecology

Occurs in NEQ. Altitudinal range from 600-1200 m. Grows in well developed upland and mountain rain forest. Also occurs in Malesia.

Natural History & Notes

Fallen fruit eaten by Cassowaries. Cooper & Cooper (1994).

This species produces a useful timber with a variety of uses including boxes, butter churns, office fittings, kitchen fittings, internal house sheeting. Swain (1928).

Wood specific gravity 0.49. Cause et al. (1989).


Sundacarpus amarus (Blume) C.N.Page, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 45: 378 (1988). Stachycarpus amarus (Blume) Gaussen, Trav. Lab. Forest. Toulouse 2 1(2): 105(1974). Podocarpus amara Blume, Enumeratio Plantarum Javae : 88(1828), Type: Kimerak Sund, Java, Kuhl & Hasselt 731; holo: L. Fide K. D. Hill (1998). Podocarpus pedunculatus F.M.Bailey, Queensland Agricultural Journal 5(4): 390(1899), Type: Herberton district, J.F. Bailey; holo: BRI.

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