Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants - Online edition

Stenocarpus sinuatus Endl.

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Leaves and Flowers. © CSIRO
Leaves and Flowers. © CSIRO
Fruit, two views and dehiscing. © W. T. Cooper
Scale bar 10mm. © CSIRO
Cotyledon stage, epigeal germination. © CSIRO
Cotyledon and 1st leaf stage, epigeal germination. © CSIRO

Endlicher, S.L. (1848) Genera Plantarum Supplement. 4(2): 88. Type: Lectotype: Anon. [? Weeks & Day] s.n., s. dat., Cultivated, London.

Common name

Yiel-yiel; Oak, White; Tulip Flower; Tulip Tree; White Silky Oak; Wheel of Fire Tree; Wheel-of-fire; Fire Tree; White Oak; Fire Wheel Tree; Oak, White, Silky; White Beefwood


Oak grain in the wood and a corresponding pattern in the inner blaze.


Oak grain in the twigs. Leaf blades with lobed or entire margins on mature trees. Lobed leaf blades to about 48 cm long, entire leaf blades about 10-25 x 2-6 cm. Midrib raised on the upper surface of the leaf blade. Lateral veins forming loops well inside the blade margin.


Inflorescence produced on the twigs below or back from the leaves, each umbel with about 12-15 flowers. Peduncles about 50-90 mm long. Pedicels about 8-12 mm long. Tepals about 40 mm long, outer surface puberulent, inner surface glabrous. Stamens sessile, anthers about 2.5 mm long. Hypogynous gland flat, sheathing 75% of the stalk of the ovary, gland up to 3 mm high. Ovary stalked, ferruginous-pubescent, about 3 mm long, ovules about 10-12. Style about 20-25 mm long, glabrous. Pollen presenter a broad, oblique disk.


Follicles about 4-6 x 0.6-1 cm each containing up to 4 seeds. Seeds flat, about 2.5-3.5 x 0.7-0.9 cm, wing terminal. Embryo about 7-8 x 6-8 mm.


Cotyledons sessile, obovate, about 18-20 x 12-15 mm. First pair of leaves simple, sometimes lobed. At the tenth leaf stage: leaf blade simple, deeply lobed. Seed germination time 17 days.

Distribution and Ecology

Endemic to Australia, occurs in NEQ, CEQ and southwards to north-eastern New South Wales. Altitudinal range in NEQ from 700-1200 m. Grows in well developed upland and mountain rain forest but is probably more common in the drier type of rain forest associated with Kauri Pine (Agathis robusta).

Natural History & Notes

Commonly cultivated in Australia and overseas for its brilliant display of red flowers produced in wheel-like clusters.

Cybele sinuata (Loudon) Kuntze, Revisio Generum Plantarum 2: 578(1891). Agnostus sinuata Loudon, Hort. Brit. 2nd edn : 580(1832), Type: Moreton Bay, A. Cunningham(?), BM. Fide Foreman (1995). Stenocarpus cunninghamii Hook., The Botanical Magazine 72: t. 42(1846), Type: So long ago as 1828 the lamented Allan Cunningham discovered this plant on the banks of the Brisbane River, Moreton Bay. Stenocarpus sinuosus var. latifolius F.Muell., Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae 5: 154(1865), Type: J. Dallachy ad Rockingham Bay. Stenocarpus sinuosus var. intergrifolius F.Muell., Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae 5: 154(1865). Stenocarpus sinuosus F.Muell., Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae 6: 224(1868), Type: ad fluvios Tweed-, Richmond-, Brisbane-, Dawson-, et Burnett-River. Stenocarpus sinuosus var. sectus F.Muell., Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae 5: 154(1865), Type: C. Moore ad Mount Warning.
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