Trichosanthes pentaphylla F.Muell. ex Benth.
Bentham, G. (1867) Flora Australiensis 3: 314. Lectotype: Queensland. North Kennedy District: "Mt Grame: [Mt Graham, W of Rockingham Bay], June 1864, [probably J.Dallachy s.n. for F.Mueller] (lecto: MEL100120, photo!).
Leaves compound, digitate with 3-5 leaflets, juveniles simple or 3-foliolate, lobed or unlobed; compound leaf petioles about 1.5-6 cm long; leaflet blades about 4.5-17 x 1.8-11 cm, central and basal leaflets sessile or on petiolules to 13 mm long; leaflet blades scabrous as a result of white scale-like cystoliths. A large (2-14 x 1.5-8 mm) leaf-like, stipule-like structure (probract) present at each node; each structure with 2-8 large flat glands visible on the concave side.
Male and female flowers on different plants. Male flowers: inflorescences racemose or co-axillary with a solitary flower; inflorescence up to 20 cm long with a large leafy bract at the base of each flower; bracts obovate, about 2.5 x 4 cm, apex fimbriate, surface of each bract clothed in flat, green glands. Hypanthium 3-4.6 cm long, inner surface densely clothed in translucent hairs; calyx lobes triangular, 20-38 x 6-10 mm, margins entire or dissected by long, narrow teeth; corolla diameter ca. 50 mm, lobes about 14-25 x 15-20 mm with numerous fimbriations at the apex; each fimbriate lobe about 8-10 mm long and up to 4 mm wide near the base; stamens 3, attached to the inner surface of the hypanthium well below the corolla, fused together to form a central column about 4-5 mm diam; anthers about 1.5 mm long, two anthers with 2 locules and one anther with 1 locule; Locules +/- S-shaped. Female flowers: Flowers borne singly in the leaf axils, or paired but then one much older; each flower 30-40 mm diam., pedicel about 8-19 mm long; calyx tube (hypanthium) about 40-47 mm long; calyx lobes narrowly triangular, about 10-15; petals fringed with hairs, 14-18 mm long; ovary 13-16 mm; style about 12 mm long. Stigma green.
Fruits globose to ellipsoid, 40-75 x 45-65 mm, red when ripe. Apex of the fruit beaked (hard, elongated and pointed). Fruit wall about 7-14 mm thick, yellow in transverse section. Seeds numerous, immersed in a dark green unattractive-looking pulp. Seeds about 7-17 x 5-8 mm long. Testa hard and shiny. Cotyledons thick and broad, about 12-13 x 6 mm. Radicle much narrower than the cotyledons, about 1 mm long.
One cataphyll produced before the first leaf. First leaf ovate, cordate or triangular, apex acuminate, base truncate to cordate, about 2 x 1 cm, petioles about 8 mm long. Leaf blade margin toothed or lobed. Scattered scabrid hairs visible with a lens on the upper surface of the leaf blade. At the tenth leaf stage: leaf blade triangular to cordate, apex acuminate to apiculate, base cordate to auriculate, about 5 x 3.5 cm, petiole about 1.5-2 cm long. Margin toothed or lobed with about five to eight teeth on each side. Upper surface sparsely clothed in scabrid hairs or glands. Tendrils simple (unbranched) leaf-opposed, tightly coiled, present from about the third leaf onwards.