Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants - Online edition

Endiandra sideroxylon B.Hyland

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Fruit, side views, cross section and seed. © W. T. Cooper
Fruit, side views, cross sections and seed. © W. T. Cooper
Scale bar 10mm. © CSIRO
Habit, flower, stamen & glands, staminode, fruit, seedling. © CSIRO
Cotyledons and 5 leaves. © CSIRO
Seedling. © CSIRO
10th leaf stage. © CSIRO
Cotyledon stage, hypogeal germination. © CSIRO
Fl, plan view, tepals, anthers, 6 glands, 3 staminodes & ovary. © CSIRO
Flower, side view, tepals, anthers & tips of staminal glands. © CSIRO

Hyland, B.P.M. (1989) Australian Systematic Botany 2: 248. Type: B. Gray 266: State Forest Reserve 194 near Portion 69 Herberton, 12.i.1977 (QRS, holotypus).

Common name

Buff Walnut; Steelbutt; Walnut, Buff


A thin pale brown or cream layer normally visible under the subrhytidome layer before the first section of the outer blaze. On large trees the buttresses are conspicuous and resemble the tail fins on a rocket.


Twigs fluted, clothed in straight, appressed, pale brown hairs when young, almost glabrous when older. Leaf blades about 6-11 x 3-6 cm, thick and leathery, slightly arched on the upper surface between the main lateral veins, green on the underside, sparsely clothed in straight, appressed, pale brown hairs when young, glabrous when older. Midrib flush with or raised on the upper surface. Petioles flat or channelled on the upper surface. Oil dots visible with a lens.


Flowers opening quite widely, the tepals becoming +/- horizontal at anthesis. Tepals about 1.2-2.2 mm long. Staminal glands six, free from one another. Staminodes three, differentiated into a head and stalk.


Fruits ellipsoid, sometimes laterally compressed about 37-54 x 22-28.5 mm. Seed about 29-45 x 16-23 mm. Cotyledons cream to pink.


First pair of leaves ovate or lanceolate, about 60-105 x 20-35 mm, apex acuminate or acute, green on the underside. At the tenth leaf stage: leaves with a few short hairs on the upper surface along the midrib; oil dots very small, visible only with a lens. Seed germination time 32 to 45 days.

Distribution and Ecology

Endemic to NEQ, restricted to the Atherton Tableland and its vicinity. Altitudinal range from 140-1000 m. Grows in well developed rain forest on a variety of sites but probably reaching its best development on soils derived from basalt.

Natural History & Notes

This species grows large enough to produce millable logs but the timber is rather hard and not very popular in the trade. Wood specific gravity 0.78-0.82. Hyland (1989).

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